Tesla has contributed more to electrical science than any man up to his time

- Lord Kelvin, British scientist and member of the Niagara Falls Power Commission

The evolution of electric power from the discovery of Faraday in 1831 to the initial great installation of the Tesla polyphase system in 1896 is undoubtedly the most tremendous event in all engineering history 

- Dr. Charles F. Scott, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering at Yale University and former President of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers

 

In  the history of our modern technogical society, it can be argued that no single engineer / scientist has had more potential impact than the Serbian genius, Nikola Tesla. Tesla was beyond a genuis, a prodigy amongst inventors, scientists and engineers. The discoveries he made and the inventions which he conceived of are equivalent to the lifetime work of many great scientists. Tesla reportedly accumulated over 700 patents awarded him worldwide. To examine the full body of Tesla’s US patents, download this  42 Mbyte pdf of all Tesla’s US patents compiled into one pdf courtesy of the Open Source Internet Archive project.

The man who shaped the twentieth century, with his invention of the radio, radar, x-ray, radio, remote control by radio, super-conductivity, fluorescent lighting, the bladeless turbine engine and pump, the capacitor discharge ignition system for automobile engines, the mechanical oscillator, AC power and the brushless induction motor spent the later part of his life attempting to fund development for what he considered his ultimate invention, free energy for the entire world via his World Power System, a method of broadcasting electrical energy without wires, through the ground.

Indeed, a full and unbiased study of Tesla’s collected body of scientific and engineering work would reveal that he had been unfairly outcasted to the periphery of modern science culture by jealous rivals of his time. Tesla’s genius was so great that he threatened many great inventors of his day. Tesla was no ordinary scientist either; he was driven by a passion to serve humanity.

Tesla’s history is important to understand the modern day relationship between energy and economics. Tesla’s story is one of a man driven by a single aspiration….to invent technologies that would benefit mankind. He was the original open-source advocate…promoting energy for the masses. His story illustrates the fickle and ruthless nature of business. Tesla played a central role in the way technology has shaped this century.

War of the Currents

Thomas Edison – DC

 When he learned in 1881 that one of Europe’s first telephone exchange was to be built in Budapest, he left at once. Upon arriving, the Edison Tel. Co. (European subsidiary) in Budapest hired him, sent him to Paris in 1882 and to other cities. By 1884 he had gained a fine reputation and a colleague wrote a letter recommending him to Thomas Edison. Tesla fully appreciated the advantages America offered to a young inventor–capital, manufacturing and a huge market. Tesla emigrated to America, arriving with not a penny in his pocket and immediately went to work for Edison redesigning Edison’s DC dynamo.

Edison had invented the electric lightbulb in 1879 as well as the Direct Current system to power it. He envisioned powering the entire country with his system but there was one fundamental drawback; DC had one severe limitation that it experienced great power losses travelling over long distances which greatly limited its usage.  Edison was experimenter with no mathematical background and he needed theoretical calculations done to try to design a DC system that overcame this limitation. This was Edison’s motivation for hiring Tesla, the 28 year old Serbian mathematician. Edison promised Tesla considerable compensation if he could design a practical power generation and transmission system that overcame the distance limitations. Tesla took the challenge.

After a year of work, Tesla proposed to Edison that a DC dynamo would never work and that alternating current was the solution – high-voltage alternating current could transmit power over long distances using lower current that travelled miles beyond generating plants, allowing for the efficient and practical delivery system that Edison was after. Edison, already heavily invested in DC technology dismissed Tesla’s ideas as “splendid” but “utterly impractical.” and refused to compensate Tesla.

George Westinghouse – AC

Tesla was disheartened. Edison not only refused to consider AC power, but also declined to pay him commensurately for his work. Tesla felt Edison was highly unethical and made the decision to leave Edison and try to finance his project himself.  This would latter cause Edison much regret as Tesla went on in the next decade to produce 40 fundamental patents which are now the cornerstone of todays electrical power system. After Tesla left, Edison continued to market and sell his DC power systems. It was then that industrialist George Westinghouse heard about Tesla’s work. Westinghouse believed in AC power, bought into Tesla’s idea and paid him $60,000 for his patent plus royalties on every horsepower generated.

Westinghouse was one of the United States leading industrialists. Within a year of buying Tesla’s AC Power patents, Westinghouse Electric began installing its own AC generators around the country, focusing mostly on the less populated areas that were out of transmission distance from Edison’s generation and distribution system.  Westinghouse was also making headway into major metropolitan areas like New Orleans, selling electricity at a loss in order to cut into Edison’s business. Westinghouse Electric’s aggressive expansion was worrisome to Edison. By 1887, after only a year in the business, Westinghouse had already more than half as many generating stations as Edison.

Edison’s Dirty Tricks

This is when the “War of the Currents” really heated up. Edison began to use dirty tactics to paint a negative picture on AC current. A doctor had approached Edison about the possibility of using electricity as a more humane alternative to hanging criminals who were sentenced to death. Edison was against the death penalty but his lack of business ethics persuaded him to experiment with electrocution in order to make AC power appear dangerous to human health. In his experiments and public displays, Edison bought dogs at 25 cents each and performed experiments subjecting them to lethal dosages of AC current. Edison even wired up and staged a public electrocution of a circus elephant that had killed a number of workers (the trainer had provoked the elephants lethal violence by putting a lit cigarette in the elephant’s mouth).

Edison promoted killing convicted criminals on death row with electricity as a good idea because AC current was so lethal that it would result in instantaneous death. He promoted the terminology that the convicted criminals would be “Westinghoused.” When Westinghouse heard this, he was livid. Westinghouse was extremely concerned about Edison’s underhanded manipulations. At risk was millions of dollars in losses if Edison’s propaganda campaign convinced the public that his AC current would be lethal to homeowners.

New York State sentenced convicted murderer William Kemmler to death; they had bought into Edison’s propaganda and agreed to make Kemmler the first man to be executed in an electric chair. Westinghouse contributed $100,000 toward legal fees for Kemmler’s appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court, where it was argued that death in the electric chair amounted to cruel and unusual punishment. The appeal was unsuccessful, however and on August 6, 1890, Kemmler was strapped into Harold Brown’s chair at Auburn prison and wired to an AC dynamo.

The Battle of the Currents made front page news but in spite of the negative publicity campaign mounted by Edison, DC power was not able to counter the obvious superiority of Tesla’s AC system.

The 1893 World Columbian Exposition in Chicago

The 1893 World Columbian Exposition was the World’s Fair that commemorated 400 years since Christopher Columbus set foot in the New World.  It was located on Lake Michigan to allow access by sea, road and rail and  a gathering  which exhibited ideas and technologies from the world’s best industrial, cultural, commercial and educational enterprises. It was a brilliant spectacle of science, art and industry.

The exposition was the greatest event in the world at that time and both Westinghouse and Edison knew that this illustrious fair as a strategic global event for introducing their power systems to the world.  Westinghouse outbid Edison for the contract to power the expositions lighting and electrical systems and you might say, the rest is history.  Tesla and Westinghouse created a system which used alternating current to illuminate two Hundred thousand electric light bulbs. The Westinghouse display was a historic collection of machines, all powered with Tesla/Westinghouse alternating current.  It was a spectacular display of lights and energy, which powered the exposition.

Westinghouse and Edison’s dramatic display caught the attention of one critical attendee, Lord William Kelvin, the famous British physicist.

The Westinghouse / Tesla Booth at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair

The Triumph of Niagara Falls

We have many a monument of past ages; we have the palaces and pyramids, the temples of the Greek and the cathedrals of Christendom.  In them is exemplified the power of men, the greatness of nations, the love of art and religious devotion.  But the monument at Niagara has something of its own, more in accord with our present thoughts and tendencies.  It is a monument worthy of our scientific age, a true monument of enlightenment and of peace.  It signifies the subjugation of natural forces to the service of man, the discontinuance of barbarous methods, the relieving of millions from want and suffering 

- Nikola Tesla's speech at the opening ceremony of the hydroelectric power station, January 12, 1897

The International Niagara Falls Commission solicited tenders to build a practical power station that would harness the power of Niagara Falls.  Among the tenders was included one from an old rival,  Thomas Edison.  The commission rejected all proposals, including Edison’s as inadequate. Up until the Chicago World’s Fair, Lord Kelvin was a strong proponent of Edison’s DC power system. That all changed once he witnessed the spectacular display created by Westinghouse and Tesla.

Today, Adam’s Power Station (Power House No. 3), the only remains of the old Niagara Falls Power Plant, may become a science museum.  This museum would be devoted to Niagara Falls Power Plant, the first hydro-electric power plant in the world, this location is a great turning stone in the history of electricity.

The construction period was traumatic for engineers, mechanics and workers, but it weighed most heavily on investors. Project backers included several of the wealthiest men in America and Europe, including: J. P. Morgan, John Jacob Astor, Lord Rothschild, and W. K. Vanderbilt. After a five-year nightmare of doubt and financial crises, the project approached completion. Tesla had not doubted the results for a moment. The investors, however, were not at all sure the system would work. While the machines were running smoothly in Tesla’s three-dimensional imagination, they were still unproved and expensive.

But the worries were unwarranted. When the switch was thrown, the first power reached Buffalo at midnight, November 16, 1896. The Niagara Falls Gazette reported that day, “The turning of a switch in the big powerhouse at Niagara completed a circuit which caused the Niagara River to flow uphill.” The first one thousand horsepower of electricity surging to Buffalo was claimed by the street railway company, but already the local power company had orders from residents for five thousand more. Within a few years the number of generators at Niagara Falls reached the planned ten, and power lines were electrifying New York City. Broadway was ablaze with lights; the elevated, street railways, and subway system rumbled; and even the Edison systems converted to alternating current.

But there were complications. Both the Westinghouse and General Electric corporations were morally and financially drained by the War of the Currents. Years of litigation, the absorption of Edison’s company and others by professional managers at GE, and the financial teetering of Westinghouse all contributed to a takeover. This was the era of the Robber Barons, and one of the biggest was ready to make his move. J. P. Morgan, hoping to bring all U.S. hydroelectric power under his control, proceeded to manipulate stock market forces with the intention of starving out Westinghouse and buying the Tesla patents. Thanks in part to Tesla, this did not happen.

Westinghouse called on the inventor, pleading for an escape from the initial contract that gave Tesla generous royalties. In a magnanimous and history-making gesture, Tesla said he tore up the contract. He was, after all, grateful to the one man who had believed in his invention. And he was convinced that greater inventions lay ahead. The Westinghouse Electric Company was saved for future triumphs. Tesla, although sharing the glory, was left forever afterward in recurring financial difficulties. – from PBS, Tesla, Master of Lightning

In later years, Edison admitted regrets for not taking Tesla’s advice. Today, it is Tesla’s system that has become the standard for power distribution.

 

Tesla’s Ultimate Dream of Wirelessly Transmitting Power for All of Humanity

 

When Tesla returned from Colorado Springs to New York, he wrote a sensational article for Century Magazine. In this detailed, futuristic vision he described a means of tapping the sun’s energy with an antenna. He suggested that it would be possible to control the weather with electrical energy. He predicted machines that would make war an impossibility. And he proposed a global system of wireless communications. To most people the ideas were almost incomprehensible, but Tesla was a man who could not be underestimated.

The article caught the attention of one of the world’s most powerful men, J. P. Morgan. A frequent guest in Morgan’s home, Tesla proposed a scheme that must have sounded like science fiction: a “world system” of wireless communications to relay telephone messages across the ocean; to broadcast news, music, stock market reports, private messages, secure military communications, and even pictures to any part of the world. “When wireless is fully applied the earth will be converted into a huge brain, capable of response in every one of its parts,” Tesla told Morgan.

Morgan offered Tesla $150,000 to build a transmission tower and power plant. A more realistic sum would have been $1,000,000, but Tesla took what was available and went to work immediately. In spite of what he told his investor, Tesla’s actual plan was to make a large-scale demonstration of electrical power transmission without wires. This turned out to be a fatal mistake.

For his new construction project, Tesla acquired land on the cliffs of Long Island Sound. The site was called Wardenclyffe. By 1901 the Wardenclyffe project was under construction, the most challenging task being the erection of an enormous tower, rising 187 feet in the air and supporting on its top a fifty-five-ton sphere made of steel. Beneath the tower, a well-like shaft plunged 120 feet into the ground. Sixteen iron pipes were driven three hundred feet deeper so that currents could pass through them and seize hold of the earth. “In this system that I have invented,” Tesla explained, “it is necessary for the machine to get a grip of the earth, otherwise it cannot shake the earth. It has to have a grip… so that the whole of this globe can quiver.”

As the tower construction slowly increased, it became evident that more funds were sorely needed. But Morgan was not quick to respond. Then on December 12, 1901, the world awoke to the news that Marconi had signaled the letter “S” across the Atlantic from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland. Tesla, unruffled by the accomplishment, explained that the Italian used 17 Tesla patents to accomplish the transmission. But Morgan began to doubt Tesla. Marconi’s system not only worked, it was also inexpensive.

Tesla pleaded with Morgan for more financial support, but the investor soundly refused. To make matters worse, the stock market crashed and prices for the tower’s materials doubled. High prices combined with Tesla’s inability to find enough willing investors eventually led to the demise of the project.

In 1905, after some amazing electrical displays, Tesla and his team had to abandon the project forever. The newspapers called it, “Tesla’s million dollar folly.”PBS  Tesla, Master of Lightning

Because of Tesla’s reputation as perhaps the world’s greatest scientific and engineering genius, many people today are attempting to understand or replicate his energy experiments. One of these is German physicist Professor Konstantin Meyl who has shown that Tesla’s incredible claims about energy have a theoretical foundation in the correction of a long accepted axiom. Meyl has proved that by refuting Maxwell’s third equation so that the vector quantity is NOT zero, Tesla’s experimental results are derivable from the revised Maxwell’s equations.

Some of Tesla’s Patents

To get an idea of Tesla’s prodigious output, many of which were world first’s in important field, look at this list of his US patents organized first by category then by date.

By Category (filling date, description, pat no.)

MOTORS & GENERATORS

Mar. 30, 1886 Thermo-Magnetic Motor #396,121
Jan. 14, 1886 Dynamo-Electric Machine #359,748
May 26, 1887 Pyromagneto-Electric Generator #428,057
Oct. 12, 1887 Electro-Magnetic Motor #381,968
Oct. 12, 1887 Electrical Transmission of Power #382,280
Nov. 30, 1887 Electro-Magnetic Motor #381,969
Nov. 30, 1887 Electro-Magnetic Motor #382,279
Nov. 30, 1887 Electrical Transmission of Power #382,281
Apr. 23, 1888 Dynamo-Electric Machine #390,414
Apr. 28, 1888 Dynamo-Electric Machine #390,721
May 15, 1888 Dynamo-Electric Machine or Motor #390,415
May 15, 1888 System of Electrical Transmission of Power #487,796
May 15, 1888 Electrical Transmission of Power #511,915
May 15, 1888 Alternating Motor #555,190
Oct. 20, 1888 Electromagnetic Motor #524,426
Dec. 8, 1888 Electrical Transmission of Power #511,559
Dec. 8, 1888 System of Electrical Power Transmission #511,560
Jan. 8, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #405,858
Feb. 18, 1889 Method of Operating Electro-Magnetic Motors #401,520
Mar. 14, 1889 Method of Electrical Power Transmission #405,859
Mar. 23, 1889 Dynamo-Electric Machine #406,968
Apr. 6, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #459,772
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #416,191
May 20, 1889 Method of Operating Electro-Magnetic Motors #416,192
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #416,193
May 20, 1889 Electric Motor #416,194
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #416,195
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #418,248
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #424,036
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #445,207
Mar. 26, 1890 Alternating-Current Electro-Magnetic Motor #433,700
Mar. 26, 1890 Alternating-Current Motor #433,701
Apr. 4, 1890 Electro-Magnetic Motor #433,703
Jan. 27, 1891 Electro-Magnetic Motor #455,067
July 13, 1891 Electro-Magnetic Motor #464,666
Aug. 19, 1893 Electric Generator #511,916

TRANSFORMERS, CONVERTERS, COMPONENTS

May 6, 1885 Commutator for Dynamo-Electric Machines #334,823
May 18, 1885 Regulator for Dynamo-Electric Machines #336,961
June 1, 1885 Regulator for Dynamo-Electric Machines #336,962
Jan. 14, 1886 Regulator for Dynamo-Electric Machines #350,954
Apr. 30, 1887 Commutator for Dynamo-Electric Machines #382,845
Dec. 23, 1887 System of Electrical Distribution #381,970
Dec. 23, 1887 Method of Converting and Distributing Electric Currents #382,282
Apr. 10, 1888 System of Electrical Distribution #390,413
Apr. 24, 1888 Regulator for Alternate-Current Motors #390,820
June 12, 1889 Method of Obtaining Direct from Alternating Currents #413,353
June 28, 1889 Armature for Electric Machines (Tesla-Schmid, co-inventors) #417,794
Mar. 26, 1890 Electrical Transformer or Induction Device #433,702
Aug. 1, 1891 Electrical Condenser #464,667
Jan. 2, 1892 Electrical Conductor #514,167
July 7, 1893 Coil for Electro-Magnets #512,340
June 17, 1896 Electrical Condenser #567,818
Nov. 5, 1896 Man. of Electrical Condensers, Coils, &c. #577,671
Mar. 20, 1897 Electrical Transformer #593,138

HIGH FREQUENCY

Nov. 15, 1890 Alternating-Electric-Current Generator #447,921
Feb. 4, 1891 Method of and Apparatus for Electrical Conversion and Distribution #462,418
Aug. 2, 1893 Means for Generating Electric Currents #514,168
Apr. 22, 1896 Apparatus for Producing Electric Currents of High Frequency and Potential #568,176
June 20, 1896 Method of Regulating Apparatus for Producing Currents of High Frequency #568,178
July 6, 1896 Method of and Apparatus for Producing Currents of High Frequency #568,179
July 9, 1896 Apparatus for Producing Electrical Currents High Frequency #568,180
Sept. 3, 1896 Apparatus for Producing Electric Currents of High Frequency #577,670
Oct. 19, 1896 Apparatus for Producing Currents of High Frequency #583,953
June 3, 1897 Electric-Circuit Controller #609,251
Dec. 2, 1897 Electrical-Circuit Controller #609,245
Dec. 10, 1897 Electrical-Circuit Controller #611,719
Feb. 28, 1898 Electric-Circuit Controller #609,246
Mar. 12, 1898 Electric-Circuit Controller #609,247
Mar. 12, 1898 Electric-Circuit Controller #609,248
Mar. 12, 1898 Electric-Circuit Controller #609,249
Apr. 19, 1898 Electric-Circuit Controller #613,735

RADIO

Sept. 2, 1897 System of Transmission of Electrical Energy #645,576
Sept. 2, 1897 Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy #649,621
July 1, 1898 Method of and Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vessels or Vehicles #613,809
June 24, 1899 Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted from a Distance to a Receiving Device Through Natural Media #685,955
June 24, 1899 Method of Intensifying and Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media #685,953
Aug. 1, 1899 Method of Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media #685,954
Aug. 1, 1899 Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media #685,956
May 16, 1900 Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Mediums #787,412
July 16, 1900 Method of Signaling #723,188
July 16, 1900 System of Signaling #725,605
Jan. 18, 1902 Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical
Energy #1,119,732

LIGHTING

Mar. 30, 1885 Electric-Arc Lamp #335,786
July 13, 1886 Electric-Arc Lamp #335,787
Oct. 1, 1890 Method of Operating Arc Lamps #447,920
Apr. 25, 1891 System of Electric Lighting #454,622
May 14, 1891 Electric Incandescent Lamp #455,069
Jan. 2, 1892 Incandescent Electric Light #514,170

MEASUREMENTS & METERS

Mar. 27, 1891 Electrical Meter #455,068
Dec. 15, 1893 Electrical Meter #514,973
May 29, 1914 Speed-Indicator #1,209,359
Dec. 18, 1916 Speed-Indicator #1,274,816
Dec. 18, 1916 Ship’s Log #1,314,718
Dec. 18, 1916 Flow-Meter #1,365,547
Dec. 18, 1916 Frequency Meter #1,402,025

ENGINES & PROPULSION

Jan. 2, 1892 Electric-Railway System #514,972
Aug. 19, 1893 Reciprocating Engine #514,169
Dec. 29, 1893 Steam-Engine #517,900
Oct. 21, 1909 Fluid Propulsion #1,061,142
Oct. 21, 1909 Turbine #1,061,206
Sept. 9, 1921 Method of Aerial Transportation #1,655,113
Oct. 4, 1927 Apparatus for Aerial Transportation #1,655,114

VARIOUS DEVICES & PROCESSES

June 17, 1896 Apparatus for Producing Ozone #568,177
Feb. 17, 1897 Electrical Igniter for Gas-Engines #609,250
Mar. 21, 1900 Means for Increasing the Intensity of Electrical Oscillations #685,012
June 15, 1900 Method of Insulating Electric Conductors #655,838
Sept.21, 1900 Method of Insulating Electric Conductors (reissue of #655,838) #11,865
Mar. 21, 1901 Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy #685,957
Mar. 21, 1901 Method of Utilizing Radiant Energy #685,958
Oct. 28, 1913 Fountain #1,113,716
Feb. 21, 1916 Vaivular Conduit #1,329,559
May 6, 1916 Lightning-Protector #1,266,175

By Date

Mar. 30, 1885 Electric-Arc Lamp #335,786
May 6, 1885 Commutator for Dynamo-Electric Machines #334,823
May 18, 1885 Regulator for Dynamo-Electric Machines #336,961
June 1, 1885 Regulator for Dynamo-Electric Machines #336,962

Jan. 14, 1886 Regulator for Dynamo-Electric Machines #350,954
Mar. 30, 1886 Thermo-Magnetic Motor #396,121
Jan. 14, 1886 Dynamo-Electric Machine #359,748
July 13, 1886 Electric-Arc Lamp #335,787

Apr. 30, 1887 Commutator for Dynamo-Electric Machines #382,845
May 26, 1887 Pyromagneto-Electric Generator #428,057
Oct. 12, 1887 Electro-Magnetic Motor #381,968
Oct. 12, 1887 Electrical Transmission of Power #382,280
Nov. 30, 1887 Electro-Magnetic Motor #382,279
Nov. 30, 1887 Electrical Transmission of Power #382,281
Nov. 30, 1887 Electro-Magnetic Motor #381,969
Dec. 23, 1887 System of Electrical Distribution #381,970
Dec. 23, 1887 Method of Converting and Distributing Electric Currents #382,282

Apr. 10, 1888 System of Electrical Distribution #390,413
Apr. 23, 1888 Dynamo-Electric Machine #390,414
Apr. 24, 1888 Regulator for Alternate-Current Motors #390,820
Apr. 28, 1888 Dynamo-Electric Machine #390,721
May 15, 1888 Dynamo-Electric Machine or Motor #390,415
May 15, 1888 System of Electrical Transmission of Power #487,796
May 15, 1888 Alternating Motor #555,190
May 15, 1888 Electrical Transmission of Power #511,915
Oct. 20, 1888 Electromagnetic Motor #524,426
Dec. 8, 1888 System of Electrical Power Transmission #511,560
Dec. 8, 1888 Electrical Transmission of Power #511,559

Jan. 8, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #405,858
Feb. 18, 1889 Method of Operating Electro-Magnetic Motors #401,520
Mar. 14, 1889 Method of Electrical Power Transmission #405,859
Mar. 23, 1889 Dynamo-Electric Machine #406,968
Apr. 6, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #459,772
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #416,191
May 20, 1889 Method of Operating Electro-Magnetic Motors #416,192
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #416,193
May 20, 1889 Electric Motor #416,194
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #416,195
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #418,248
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #424,036
May 20, 1889 Electro-Magnetic Motor #445,207
June 12, 1889 Method of Obtaining Direct from Alternating Currents #413,353
June 28, 1889 Armature for Electric Machines (Tesla-Schmid, co-inventors) #417,794

Mar. 26, 1890 Alternating-Current Electro-Magnetic Motor #433,700
Mar. 26, 1890 Alternating-Current Motor #433,701
Mar. 26, 1890 Electrical Transformer or Induction Device #433,702
Apr. 4, 1890 Electro-Magnetic Motor #433,703
Oct. 1, 1890 Method of Operating Arc Lamps #447,920
Nov. 15, 1890 Alternating-Electric-Current Generator #447,921

Jan. 27, 1891 Electro-Magnetic Motor #455,067
Feb. 4, 1891 Method of and Apparatus for Electrical Conversion and Distribution #462,418
Mar. 27, 1891 Electrical Meter #455,068
Apr. 25, 1891 System of Electric Lighting #454,622
May 14, 1891 Electric Incandescent Lamp #455,069
July 13, 1891 Electro-Magnetic Motor #464,666
Aug. 1, 1891 Electrical Condenser #464,667

Jan. 2, 1892 Electrical Conductor #514,167
Jan. 2, 1892 Incandescent Electric Light #514,170
Jan. 2, 1892 Electric-Railway System #514,972

July 7, 1893 Coil for Electro-Magnets #512,340
Aug. 2, 1893 Means for Generating Electric Currents #514,168
Aug. 19, 1893 Reciprocating Engine #514,169
Aug. 19, 1893 Electric Generator #511,916
Dec. 15, 1893 Electrical Meter #514,973
Dec. 29, 1893 Steam-Engine #517,900

Apr. 22, 1896 Apparatus for Producing Electric Currents of High Frequency and Potential #568,176
June 17, 1896 Electrical Condenser #567,818
June 17, 1896 Apparatus for Producing Ozone #568,177
June 20, 1896 Method of Regulating Apparatus for Producing Currents of High Frequency #568,178
July 6, 1896 Method of and Apparatus for Producing Currents of High Frequency #568,179
July 9, 1896 Apparatus for Producing Electrical Currents High Frequency #568,180
Sept. 3, 1896 Apparatus for Producing Electric Currents of High Frequency #577,670
Oct. 19, 1896 Apparatus for Producing Currents of High Frequency #583,953
Nov. 5, 1896 Man. of Electrical Condensers, Coils, &c. #577,671

Feb. 17, 1897 Electrical Igniter for Gas-Engines #609,250
Mar. 20, 1897 Electrical Transformer #593,138
June 3, 1897 Electric-Circuit Controller #609,251
Dec. 2, 1897 Electrical-Circuit Controller #609,245
Dec. 10, 1897 Electrical-Circuit Controller #611,719

Sept. 2, 1897 System of Transmission of Electrical Energy #645,576
Sept. 2, 1897 Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy #649,621

Feb. 28, 1898 Electric-Circuit Controller #609,246
Mar. 12, 1898 Electric-Circuit Controller #609,247
Mar. 12, 1898 Electric-Circuit Controller #609,248
Mar. 12, 1898 Electric-Circuit Controller #609,249
Apr. 19, 1898 Electric-Circuit Controller #613,735
July 1, 1898 Method of and Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vessels or Vehicles #613,809

June 24, 1899 Method of Intensifying and Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media #685,953
June 24, 1899 Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted from a Distance to a Receiving Device Through Natural Media #685,955
Aug. 1, 1899 Method of Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media #685,954
Aug. 1, 1899 Apparatus for Utilizing Effects Transmitted Through Natural Media #685,956

Mar. 21, 1900 Means for Increasing the Intensity of Electrical Oscillations #685,012
May 16, 1900 Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy Through the Natural Mediums #787,412
June 15, 1900 Method of Insulating Electric Conductors #655,838
July 16, 1900 Method of Signaling #723,188
July 16, 1900 System of Signaling #725,605
Sept.21, 1900 Method of Insulating Electric Conductors (reissue of #655,838) #11,865

Mar. 21, 1901 Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy #685,957
Mar. 21, 1901 Method of Utilizing Radiant Energy #685,958

Jan. 18, 1902 Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy #1,119,732

Oct. 21, 1909 Fluid Propulsion #1,061,142
Oct. 21, 1909 Turbine #1,061,206

Oct. 28, 1913 Fountain #1,113,716

May 29, 1914 Speed-Indicator #1,209,359

Feb. 21, 1916 Vaivular Conduit #1,329,559
May 6, 1916 Lightning-Protector #1,266,175
Dec. 18, 1916 Speed-Indicator #1,274,816
Dec. 18, 1916 Ship’s Log #1,314,718
Dec. 18, 1916 Flow-Meter #1,365,547
Dec. 18, 1916 Frequency Meter #1,402,025

Sept. 9, 1921 Method of Aerial Transportation #1,655,113

Oct. 4, 1927 Apparatus for Aerial Transportation #1,655,114

Tesla References

The New York Tesla Society

 

Twenty-First Century Books offers a rich treasure trove of many articles written by Nikola Tesla

 

 

Acclaimed PBS series on the life and work of Nikola Tesla with many interactive links

 

Australian Arthur Cristian has done extensive research on a pretty amazing theory that implicates 41st president of the United States, George Bush as a Nikola Tesla’s trust assistant George Scherff Snr’s son, connecting Tesla’s assistant and George Bush Snr with the unusual circumstances of Tesla’s death and the Bush family with Adolf Hitler! The webpage containing Cristian’s theory is here:

Nikola Tesla – Deathbed Confessions, Photos Support Claims That George H. Scherf(f), Jr Was The 41st U.S. President George Bush

It’s pretty incredible conclusions and is apparently based upon the deathbed confession of Otto Skorzeny, Hitler’s bodyguard & also the person Cristian claims murdered Tesla by suffocation. You can read it and judge it’s authenticity. Conspiracy theory or reality?